Nature-based units as building blocks for resource recovery systems in cities

PDF 1.75 MB - 13 Jul 2022

Cities are producers of high quantities of secondary liquid and solid streams that are still poorly utilized within urban systems.  tackle this issue, there has been an ever-growing push for more efficient resource management and waste prevention in urban areas, following the concept of a circular economy. This review paper provides a characterization of urban solid and liquid resource flows (including water, nutrients, metals, potential energy, and organics), which pass through selected nature-based solutions (NBS) and supporting units (SU), expanding on that characterization through the study of existing cases.


Validating circular performance indicators: The interface between circular economy and stakeholders

15 Mar 2022

The development and application of appropriate Circular Economy indicators is an issue that concerns both the scientific and the business community, as well as decision makers. The existing gap between research, policy and practice could be bridged by using a dynamic indicators selection approach that combines both expert and participatory practices. This study aims to develop such a novel approach for the selection of indicators based on views and needs of practitioners, whilst considering the complex interdependencies of the indicators and determining their importance.


Potential nutrient conversion using nature-based solutions in cities and utilization concepts to create circular urban food systems

23 Jul 2021

This paper quantifies the potential nutrients (main plant macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) that could be recovered from urban wastewater and biodegradable kitchen waste using nature-based treatment solutions. Results indicate that, using NBS, the wastewater and kitchen waste from 77,250 persons could fully cover the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer demand of the entire vegetable production in Vienna, which currently supplies one-third of Vienna’s vegetable consumption. Additional people connected to the system can supply significant excess nutrients to produce other crops within and beyond the city.


Social engagement strategy for the co-creation of HOUSEFUL solutions as new services (version I)

PDF 1.37 MB - 31 Jul 2020

This deliverable provides a preliminary approach on how to develop and implement an engagement strategy for the development of the Houseful project solutions and services (CEBOs). The main objective of this deliverable is to define the actions and activities that will be implemented in Task 3.2 (the process of co-creation through the implementation of workshops). The action and activities are based on the evidence gathered after consulting with the identified and targeted stakeholders. Therefore, this document also provides information on who these stakeholders are, how they have been identified and their role in the engagement process.



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